The obedience of medical personnel to using personal protective equipment in preventing the transmission of COVID-19 at a private hospital in Indonesia

Eka Putri Hartuti, Dyah Suryani, Vebby Amellia Edwin, Maretalinia Maretalinia, Suyitno Suyitno


Background: As one of the vulnerable groups to be infected by COVID-19, healthcare workers are required to obey the hospital rules and protocols. However, it may remain challenging for them, especially related to the provision of using personal protective equipment.

Objective: This study examined the obedience of medical personnel to personal protective equipment in preventing the transmission of COVID-19 at PKU Muhammadiyah Hospital Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

Methods: This cross-sectional study examined 259 medical personnel (medical doctors, nurses, and midwives) in the hospital. Descriptive statistics, Chi-Square test, and multiple logistic regression were used for data analysis.

Results: The majority of respondents were nurses (80.3%) and female (63.3%). Those who had a poor attitude would be three times more likely to have poor obedience to using personal protective equipment (Adj. OR: 2.81, 95% CI: 1.52 - 5.19). Sex, age, length of work, level of knowledge, level of motivation, and facility support were not correlated with obedience to using personal protective equipment.

Conclusion: The finding reported that many medical personnel were not obedient to using personal protective equipment because their response to disease prevention was poor. The results can be used for further intervention and education or training programs for medical personnel.


COVID-19; Personal Protective Equipment (PPE); medical personnel; hospital; Indonesia

Full Text:



Alao, M., Durodola, A., Ibrahim, O., & Asinobi, O. (2020). Assessment of health workers’ knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and use of personal protective equipment for prevention of COVID-19 infection in low-resource settings. Advances in Public Health, 2020.

Bahl, P., Doolan, C., De Silva, C., Chughtai, A. A., Bourouiba, L., & MacIntyre, C. R. (2020). Airborne or droplet precautions for health workers treating COVID-19? The Journal of Infectious Diseases.

Barratt, R., Shaban, R. Z., & Gilbert, G. L. (2020). Characteristics of personal protective equipment training programs in Australia and New Zealand hospitals: A survey. Infection, Disease & Health, 25(4), 253-261.

Battista, R. A., Ferraro, M., Piccioni, L. O., Malzanni, G. E., & Bussi, M. (2021). Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) in COVID 19 pandemic: Related Symptoms and adverse reactions in healthcare workers and general population. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 63(2), e80. http://10.1097/JOM.0000000000002100

Castro-Sánchez, E., Alexander, C., Atchison, C., Patel, D., Leung, W., Calamita, M., . . . Ramid, D. (2021). Evaluation of a personal protective equipment support programme for staff during the COVID-19 pandemic in London. Journal of Hospital Infection, 109, 68-77.

Çiriş Yildiz, C., Ulaşli Kaban, H., & Tanriverdi, F. Ş. (2020). COVID-19 pandemic and personal protective equipment: Evaluation of equipment comfort and user attitude. Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health, 1-8.

Cohen, J., & van der Meulen Rodgers, Y. (2020). Contributing factors to personal protective equipment shortages during the COVID-19 pandemic. Preventive Medicine, 106263. http://10.1016/j.ypmed.2020.106263

El-Sokkary, R. H., El-Kholy, A., Mohy Eldin, S., Khater, W. S., Gad, D. M., Bahgat, S., . . . Mahmoud, E. (2021). Characteristics and predicting factors of Corona Virus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) among healthcare providers in a developing country. Plos One, 16(1), e0245672.

Haque, M., Kumar, S., Charan, J., Bhatt, R., Islam, S., Dutta, S., . . . Kurdi, A. (2020). Utilisation, availability and price changes of medicines and protection equipment for COVID-19 in India: Findings and implications. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 11, 1822.

Hasan, S. S., Kow, C. S., & Zaidi, S. T. R. (2021). Social distancing and the use of PPE by community pharmacy personnel: Does evidence support these measures? Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 17(2), 456-459. http://10.1016/j.sapharm.2020.04.033

Hoernke, K., Djellouli, N., Andrews, L., Lewis-Jackson, S., Manby, L., Martin, S., . . . Vindrola-Padros, C. (2021). Frontline healthcare workers’ experiences with personal protective equipment during the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK: A rapid qualitative appraisal. BMJ Open, 11(1), e046199.

Hossain, M. A., Rashid, M. U. B., Khan, M. A. S., Sayeed, S., Kader, M. A., & Hawlader, M. D. H. (2021). Healthcare Workers' knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding personal protective equipment for the prevention of COVID-19. Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare, 14, 229. http://10.2147/JMDH.S293717

Ilesanmi, O., Afolabi, A., Akande, A., Raji, T., & Mohammed, A. (2021). Infection prevention and control during COVID-19 pandemic: Realities from health care workers in a north central state in Nigeria. Epidemiology & Infection, 149.

Ippolito, M., Vitale, F., Accurso, G., Iozzo, P., Gregoretti, C., Giarratano, A., & Cortegiani, A. (2020). Medical masks and respirators for the protection of healthcare workers from SARS-CoV-2 and other viruses. Pulmonology.

Neuwirth, M. M., Mattner, F., & Otchwemah, R. (2020). Adherence to personal protective equipment use among healthcare workers caring for confirmed COVID-19 and alleged non-COVID-19 patients. Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control, 9(1), 1-5.

Oche, O. M., Adamu, H., Yahaya, M., Raji, I. A., Illo, H. G., Kontagora, Z. A., . . . Yusuf, H. (2020). Knowledge, attitude and practices related to COVID-19 prevention among health care workers in Sokoto Metropolis, Nigeria. International Journal of Tropical Disease & Health, 44-61. http://10.9734/IJTDH/2020/v41i2330417

Quigley, A. L., Stone, H., Nguyen, P. Y., Chughtai, A. A., & MacIntyre, C. R. (2021). Estimating the burden of COVID-19 on the Australian healthcare workers and health system during the first six months of the pandemic. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 114, 103811. http://10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2020.103811

Shaukat, N., Ali, D. M., & Razzak, J. (2020). Physical and mental health impacts of COVID-19 on healthcare workers: A scoping review. International Journal of Emergency Medicine, 13(1), 1-8.

Shaw, A., Flott, K., Fontana, G., Durkin, M., & Darzi, A. (2020). No patient safety without health worker safety. The Lancet, 396(10262), 1541-1543.

Stewart, C. L., Thornblade, L. W., Diamond, D. J., Fong, Y., & Melstrom, L. G. (2020). Personal protective equipment and COVID-19: A review for surgeons. Annals of Surgery, 272(2), e132. http://10.1097/SLA.0000000000003991

Telford, C. T., Bystrom, C., Fox, T., Holland, D. P., Wiggins‐Benn, S., Mandani, A., . . . Shah, S. (2020). COVID‐19 infection prevention and control adherence in long‐term care facilities, Atlanta, Georgia. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

Toomey, E., Conway, Y., Burton, C., Smith, S., Smalle, M., Chan, X.-H. S., . . . Thomson, I. (2020). Extended use or re-use of single-use surgical masks and filtering facepiece respirators during COVID-19: A rapid systematic review. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 1-25.

Tosepu, R., Effendy, D. S., & Ahmad, L. (2020). The first confirmed cases of COVID-19 In Indonesian citizens. Public Health of Indonesia, 6(2), 70-71.

Tosepu, R., Effendy, D. S., Lestari, H., Bahar, H., Asfian, P., & Sakka, A. (2020). Vulnerability of weather on COVID-19 pandemic in West Java, Indonesia. Public Health of Indonesia, 6(4), 123-128.

Tosepu, R., Gunawan, J., Effendy, D. S., HN, M. R., Muchtar, F., Sakka, A., & Indriastuti, D. (2021). Experience of healthcare workers in combatting COVID-19 in Indonesia: A descriptive qualitative study. Belitung Nursing Journal, 7(1), 37-42.

Wise, J. (2021). COVID-19: Doctors and nurses demand better PPE for wider range of procedures. BMJ, 372.

World Health Organization. (2015). Hand hygiene: why, how & when. Retrieved from



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Eka Putri Hartuti, Dyah Suryani, Vebby Amellia Edwin, Maretalinia Maretalinia, Suyitno Suyitno

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

PHI is Indexed in:


Copyright 2015-2018 Public Health of Indonesia | e-ISSN 2477-1570 | p-ISSN 2528-1542 licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License