THE BEHAVIOR OF FOOT CARE IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS: APPLYING THE THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOUR

Narmawan Narmawan, Syahrul Syahrul, Kadek Ayu Erika

Abstract


Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic non-infectious disease with complications such as diabetic foot, which has the potential for amputation if left untreated. Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) is a behavior-based theory that can be applied to DM patients including foot care to minimize risk. Some studies related to TPB particularly about physical activity and diet have been explored, however, studies on foot care are still lacking.

Objective: This study aims to apply the Theory of Planned Behavior (Intentions, Attitudes, Subjective Norms and Behavioral Control) on the patient's foot care.

Methods: This was a cross sectional descriptive study. There were 93 patients diagnosed with type 2 DM recruited at 9 public health centers (Puskesmas) using accidental sampling on April 2018. TPB-based foot care questionnaire from the IWGDF (International Working Group on Diabetic Foot) Diabetic Foot guidelines was used. Data were analyzed in the form of frequency distribution.

Results: Of the total number of respondents, 25 males and 68 females with average age of 53.05 ± 8.04 years, approximately 87.1% of them have the intention to wear footwear according to size. The majority of patients think that washing feet every day is a form of good and positive practice. They also agreed that the family expects the patient to examine the presence of bone / joint protrusions independently and believes that monitoring the foot deformities performed by other DM patients is very important as well as having control that the patient can check for signs of boils in the legs and there is a high likelihood of blisters / sores if the socks used are not suitable.

Conclusion: The majority of respondents have good intentions, positive attitudes, social support and behavioral controls for foot care.


Keywords


diabetes mellitus; diabetic foot care; theory of planned behaviour

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 50(2), 179-211.

Ajzen, I. (2002). Perceived behavioral control, self‐efficacy, locus of control, and the theory of planned behavior 1. Journal of applied social psychology, 32(4), 665-683.

Al-Rubeaan, K., Al Derwish, M., Ouizi, S., Youssef, A. M., Subhani, S. N., Ibrahim, H. M., & Alamri, B. N. (2015). Diabetic foot complications and their risk factors from a large retrospective cohort study. PloS one, 10(5), e0124446.

American Diabetes Association. (2016). 2. Classification and diagnosis of diabetes. Diabetes care, 39(Supplement 1), S13-S22.

Aumiller, W. D., & Dollahite, H. A. (2015). Pathogenesis and management of diabetic foot ulcers. Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants, 28(5), 28-34.

Bakker, K., Apelqvist, J., Schaper, N. C., & Board, I. W. G. o. t. D. F. E. (2012). Practical guidelines on the management and prevention of the diabetic foot 2011. Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews, 28, 225-231.

Black, J. M., & Hawks, J. H. (2014). Keperawatan medikal bedah: manajemen klinis untuk hasil yang diharapkan: Elsevier (Singapore).

Boudreau, F., & Godin, G. (2014). Participation in regular leisure-time physical activity among individuals with type 2 diabetes not meeting Canadian guidelines: the influence of intention, perceived behavioral control, and moral norm. International journal of behavioral medicine, 21(6), 918-926.

Brunetti, A., Chiefari, E., & Foti, D. (2014). Recent advances in the molecular genetics of type 2 diabetes mellitus. World journal of diabetes, 5(2), 128.

Ekpenyong, C. E., Akpan, U., Ibu, J. O., & Nyebuk, D. E. (2012). Gender and age specific prevalence and associated risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Uyo metropolis, South Eastern Nigeria. Diabetologia Croatica, 41(1).

Francis, J., Eccles, M. P., Johnston, M., Walker, A., Grimshaw, J. M., Foy, R., . . . Bonetti, D. (2004). Constructing questionnaires based on the theory of planned behaviour: A manual for health services researchers: Centre for Health Services Research, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.

Glanz, K., Rimer, B. K., & Viswanath, K. (2008). Health behavior and health education: theory, research, and practice: John Wiley & Sons.

Goie, T. T., & Naidoo, M. (2016). Awareness of diabetic foot disease amongst patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending the chronic outpatients department at a regional hospital in Durban, South Africa. African journal of primary health care & family medicine, 8(1).

Grove, S. K., Burns, N., & Gray, J. (2014). Understanding nursing research: Building an evidence-based practice: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Indonesia, K. K. R. (2013). Riset kesehatan dasar 2013. Jakarta: Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan RI.

Kementerian Kesehatan, R. (2014). Waspada Diabetes; Eat well, Life well. Jakarta: Kementrian Kesehatan RI.

LaMorte, W. W. (2016). The theory of planned behavior. The Theory of Planned Behavior, Boston University School of Public Health, 28.

Lin, Y., & Sun, Z. (2010). Current views on type 2 diabetes. Journal of Endocrinology, 204(1), 1-11.

Neuman, W. L. (2013). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches: Pearson education.

Noar, S. M., & Zimmerman, R. S. (2005). Health Behavior Theory and cumulative knowledge regarding health behaviors: are we moving in the right direction? Health education research, 20(3), 275-290.

Organization, W. H. (2016). Global report on diabetes: World Health Organization.

Ozougwu, J., Obimba, K., Belonwu, C., & Unakalamba, C. (2013). The pathogenesis and pathophysiology of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Journal of Physiology and Pathophysiology, 4(4), 46-57.

Pender, N. J., Murdaugh, C. L., Parsons, M. A., & Ann, M. (2006). Health promotion in nursing practice.

Pendsey, S. P. (2010). Understanding diabetic foot. International journal of diabetes in developing countries, 30(2), 75.

Rahmati-Najarkolaei, F., Pakpour, A. H., Saffari, M., Hosseini, M. S., Hajizadeh, F., Chen, H., & Yekanineja, M. S. (2017). Determinants of lifestyle behavior in Iranian adults with prediabetes: Applying the theory of planned behavior. Archives of Iranian medicine, 20(4), 198-204.

Schaper, N., Van Netten, J., Apelqvist, J., Lipsky, B., Bakker, K., & Foot, I. W. G. o. t. D. (2016). Prevention and management of foot problems in diabetes: a Summary Guidance for Daily Practice 2015, based on the IWGDF Guidance Documents. Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews, 32, 7-15.

Shearman, C. P. (2015). Management of diabetic foot complications: Springer.

Thomassian, B. (2017). Diabetes mellitus: pathophysiology and clinical guidelines. The Academy of Dental Learning and OSHA Training.

Tiwari, S., Pratyush, D. D., Dwivedi, A., Gupta, S. K., Rai, M., & Singh, S. K. (2012). Microbiological and clinical characteristics of diabetic foot infections in northern India. The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, 6(04), 329-332.

Wukich, D. K., Sadoskas, D., Vaudreuil, N. J., & Fourman, M. (2017). Comparison of diabetic Charcot patients with and without foot wounds. Foot & ankle international, 38(2), 140-148.

Yusuf, S., Okuwa, M., Irwan, M., Rassa, S., Laitung, B., Thalib, A., . . . Sugama, J. (2016). Prevalence and risk factor of diabetic foot ulcers in a regional hospital, eastern Indonesia. Open Journal of Nursing, 6(01), 1.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Public Health of Indonesia

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

PHI is Indexed in:

Copyright 2015-2018 Public Health of Indonesia | e-ISSN 2477-1570 | p-ISSN 2528-1542 licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License