A comparative analysis of COVID-19 cases with comorbidities according to epidemiological and demographic characteristics in South Bengkulu Regency, Indonesia


influencing factors

How to Cite

Diniarti, F. ., Pratiwi, B. A., Surahman, F., & Rohani, T. (2022). A comparative analysis of COVID-19 cases with comorbidities according to epidemiological and demographic characteristics in South Bengkulu Regency, Indonesia. Public Health of Indonesia, 8(3), 89–95. https://doi.org/10.36685/phi.v8i3.571


Background: COVID-19 continues to be a global threat. Indonesia has the highest COVID-19 in ASEAN.

Objective: This study aimed to analyze COVID-19 cases according to epidemiological and demographic characteristics in South Bengkulu Regency, Indonesia.

Methods: This research used quantitative methods with a case-control approach. A sample of 326 people was included as secondary data obtained from the Regional General Hospital of South Bengkulu Regency, Indonesia. The sampling technique uses consecutive sampling. Data (age, gender, education) from medical records in hospitals and epidemiological data (contact records with patients, travel records, and social contact records) were measured using questionnaires validated online (Google form). Chi-square and multiple regression logistics were used for data analysis.

Result: Most groups infected with COVID-19 were in the risk age range (46.6%), men (51.2%), low education (48.2%), had a record of contact with patients (54.6%), had a travel record (53.7%), had a record of social contact (51.5%) and had the highest comorbidities such as tuberculosis (36.2%). There were significant relationships between age (p = 0.004), sex (p = 0.002, OR= 2.054), history of contact with the patient (p = 0.001, OR= 2.120), travel history (p = 0.003, OR= 1.959), social contact history (p = 0.003, OR = 2.003), and comorbidities type (p = 0.017) with the incidence of COVID-19. The dominant factor associated with COVID-19 was the record of social contact (p = 0.032, OR = 1.724).

Conclusion: The study findings can be used to increase public knowledge about COVID-19 prevention and mitigation efforts as one of the strategies to reduce the risk of COVID-19 events.



Abu-Raya, B. (2020). Predictors of refractory coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pneumonia. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 71(15), 895-896. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa409

Alamdari, N. M., Afaghi, S., Rahimi, F. S., Tarki, F. E., Tavana, S., Zali, A., Fathi, M., Besharat, S., Bagheri, L., Pourmotahari, F., Irvani, S. S. N., Dabbagh, A., & Mousavi, S. A. (2020). Mortality risk factors among hospitalized COVID-19 patients in a major referral center in Iran. Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, 252(1), 73-84. https://doi.org/10.1620/tjem.252.73

Crook, H., Raza, S., Nowell, J., Young, M., & Edison, P. (2021). Long covid-mechanisms, risk factors, and management. BMJ, 374, n1648. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n1648

Davies, N. G., Klepac, P., Liu, Y., Prem, K., Jit, M., & Eggo, R. M. (2020). Age-dependent effects in the transmission and control of COVID-19 epidemics. Nature Medicine, 26(8), 1205-1211. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-0962-9

Ejaz, H., Alsrhani, A., Zafar, A., Javed, H., Junaid, K., Abdalla, A. E., Abosalif, K. O. A., Ahmed, Z., & Younas, S. (2020). COVID-19 and comorbidities: Deleterious impact on infected patients. Journal of Infection and Public Health, 13(12), 1833-1839. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2020.07.014

Gao, Y. D., Ding, M., Dong, X., Zhang, J. J., Kursat Azkur, A., Azkur, D., Gan, H., Sun, Y. L., Fu, W., Li, W., Liang, H. L., Cao, Y. Y., Yan, Q., Cao, C., Gao, H. Y., Brüggen, M. C., van de Veen, W., Sokolowska, M., Akdis, M., & Akdis, C. A. (2021). Risk factors for severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients: A review. Allergy, 76(2), 428-455. https://doi.org/10.1111/all.14657

Irnaningsih, I., Asriati, A., & Tosepu, R. (2021). COVID-19 preventive behavior of the community in Southeast Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. Public Health of Indonesia, 7(2), 87-92. https://dx.doi.org/10.36685/phi.v7i2.416

Jesus, J. G., Sacchi, C., Candido, D. D. S., Claro, I. M., Sales, F. C. S., Manuli, E. R., Silva, D., Paiva, T. M., Pinho, M. A. B., Santos, K. C. O., Hill, S. C., Aguiar, R. S., Romero, F., Santos, F., Gonçalves, C. R., Timenetsky, M. D. C., Quick, J., Croda, J. H. R., Oliveira, W., . . . Faria, N. R. (2020). Importation and early local transmission of COVID-19 in Brazil, 2020. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo, 62, e30. http://doi.org/10.1590/S1678-9946202062030

Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. (2020). Pedoman pencegahan dan pengendalian serta definisi Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19). https://infeksiemerging.kemkes.go.id/download/REV-04_Pedoman_P2_COVID-19__27_Maret2020_TTD1.pdf

Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. (2021). Buku saku pelacakan kontak kasus Covid-19. Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia

Kraemer, M. U. G., Yang, C. H., Gutierrez, B., Wu, C. H., Klein, B., Pigott, D. M., du Plessis, L., Faria, N. R., Li, R., Hanage, W. P., Brownstein, J. S., Layan, M., Vespignani, A., Tian, H., Dye, C., Pybus, O. G., & Scarpino, S. V. (2020). The effect of human mobility and control measures on the COVID-19 epidemic in China. Science, 368(6490), 493-497. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abb4218

Lan, F. Y., Wei, C. F., Hsu, Y. T., Christiani, D. C., & Kales, S. N. (2020). Work-related COVID-19 transmission in six Asian countries/areas: A follow-up study. PLoS One, 15(5), e0233588. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0233588

Li, B., Yang, J., Zhao, F., Zhi, L., Wang, X., Liu, L., Bi, Z., & Zhao, Y. (2020). Prevalence and impact of cardiovascular metabolic diseases on COVID-19 in China. Clinical Research in Cardiology, 109(5), 531-538. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00392-020-01626-9

Liu, Y., Gu, Z., Xia, S., Shi, B., Zhou, X. N., Shi, Y., & Liu, J. (2020). What are the underlying transmission patterns of COVID-19 outbreak? An age-specific social contact characterization. EClinicalMedicine, 22, 100354. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100354

Monod, M., Blenkinsop, A., Xi, X., Hebert, D., Bershan, S., Tietze, S., Baguelin, M., Bradley, V. C., Chen, Y., Coupland, H., Filippi, S., Ish-Horowicz, J., McManus, M., Mellan, T., Gandy, A., Hutchinson, M., Unwin, H. J. T., van Elsland, S. L., Vollmer, M. A. C., . . . Ratmann, O. (2021). Age groups that sustain resurging COVID-19 epidemics in the United States. Science, 371(6536). https://doi.org/10.1126/SCIENCE.ABE8372

Nugroho, L. E., & Rakhman, A. Z. (2021). Mobilitas manusia dan tingkat penyebaran COVID-19: Sebuah analisis kuantitatif. Jurnal Nasional Teknik Elektro dan Teknologi Informasi| Vol, 10(2). https://doi.org/10.22146/jnteti.v10i2.1519

Pellicori, P., Doolub, G., Wong, C. M., Lee, K. S., Mangion, K., Ahmad, M., Berry, C., Squire, I., Lambiase, P. D., & Lyon, A. (2021). COVID‐19 and its cardiovascular effects: A systematic review of prevalence studies. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(3). https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD013879

Pratiwi, B. A., Fidella, A., Oktavidiati, E., Oktarianita, O., & Febriawati, H. (2022). Faktor-faktor yang berhubungan dengan perilaku pencegahan COVID-19 pada mahasiswa. Jurnal Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat, 11(02), 137-143. https://doi.org/10.33221/jikm.v11i02.1049

Pratiwi, T., Mariyam, N., & Astriani, M. (2022). Description of maternal knowledge in exclusive breastfeeding on pandemic COVID-19 in 2020. Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Celebes, 3(1), 30-34.

Qiu, C., Deng, Z., Xiao, Q., Shu, Y., Deng, Y., Wang, H., Liao, X., Liu, H., Zhou, D., Zhao, X., Zhou, J., Wang, J., Shi, Z., & Long, D. (2020). Transmission and clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in 104 outside-Wuhan patients, China. Journal of Medical Virology, 92(10), 2027-2035. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25975

Sanyaolu, A., Okorie, C., Marinkovic, A., Patidar, R., Younis, K., Desai, P., Hosein, Z., Padda, I., Mangat, J., & Altaf, M. (2020). Comorbidity and its impact on patients with COVID-19. SN Comprehensive Clinical Medicine, 2(8), 1069-1076. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42399-020-00363-4

Satria, R. M. A., Tutupoho, R. V., & Chalidyanto, D. (2020). Analisis faktor risiko kematian dengan penyakit komorbid COVID-19. Jurnal Keperawatan Silampari, 4(1), 48-55. https://doi.org/10.31539/jks.v4i1.1587

Schlesinger, S., Neuenschwander, M., Lang, A., Pafili, K., Kuss, O., Herder, C., & Roden, M. (2021). Risk phenotypes of diabetes and association with COVID-19 severity and death: A living systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetologia, 64(7), 1480-1491. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-021-05458-8

Setyarini, E. W., & Dwianggimawati, M. S. (2021). Analisa Faktor Resiko Penularan pada Petugas Kesehatan di Era Pandemi COVID-19 di Kabupaten Jombang. Jurnal Inovasi Penelitian, 2(2), 743-750.

Tosepu, R., Effendy, D. S., & Ahmad, L. (2020). The first confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Indonesian citizens. Public Health of Indonesia, 6(2), 70-71. https://dx.doi.org/10.36685/phi.v6i2.337

World Health Organization. (2020). Tes Diagnostik untuk SARS-CoV-2. https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/searo/indonesia/covid19/tes-diagnostik-untuk-sars-cov-2.pdf?sfvrsn=71ceeae7_2

Xiong, S., Liu, L., Lin, F., Shi, J., Han, L., Liu, H., He, L., Jiang, Q., Wang, Z., Fu, W., Li, Z., Lu, Q., Chen, Z., & Ding, S. (2020). Clinical characteristics of 116 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: A single-centered, retrospective, observational study. BMC Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 787. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05452-2

Zhou, F., Yu, T., Du, R., Fan, G., Liu, Y., Liu, Z., Xiang, J., Wang, Y., Song, B., Gu, X., Guan, L., Wei, Y., Li, H., Wu, X., Xu, J., Tu, S., Zhang, Y., Chen, H., & Cao, B. (2020). Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: A retrospective cohort study. Lancet, 395(10229), 1054-1062. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3

Zipeto, D., Palmeira, J. D. F., Argañaraz, G. A., & Argañaraz, E. R. (2020). ACE2/ADAM17/TMPRSS2 interplay may be the main risk factor for COVID-19. Frontiers in Immunology, 11, 576745. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.576745

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2022 Fiya Diniarti, Bintang Agustina Pratiwi, Ferry Surahman, Tuti Rohani


Download data is not yet available.